Scoliosis surgery is indicated in patients with large curvatures in which the likelihood of progression is inexorable (according to scientifically established criteria), associated with visible deformities and clear progressions clinically followed. There are several surgical techniques for treating scoliosis, but most of them consist of placing metal rods that restore alignment and fix the spine, reducing deformity.
Surgery details are defined based on classifications that consider the characteristics of spinal curvatures and subdivide scoliosis into different types that require different correction strategies. A specific maneuver of de-fration is performed in most cases to straighten the spine. Instrumentation will keep the vertebrae in a straighter position while bone healing of the arthrodesis is done. Bone grafting can be used to fuse or rotate the vertebrae by being taken from the patient himself (autogen), bone processed from a bone bank (allogen) or then bone substitutes of synthetic origin used.
In cases of very large curvatures, usually associated with neurological diseases, the deformity of the spine can compromise mobility and even the ability of the person to breathe properly, and surgery is mandatory.
In some cases, curvature causes an imbalance in the body, causing chronic pain.and progressive deformity, also being necessary to operate.
Risks / Complications
The risks of more serious complications in deformity surgeries have been greatly minimized today, both due to evolving techniques and due to care during surgery such as intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring and immediate postoperative intensive care unit care. .
In addition to the general complications inherent in any surgical procedure, we can highlight the following possible situations in spine surgery:
- Severe intraoperative neurological injury (<0.5%)
- Intraoperative vascular injury
- Local or systemic infection
- Bankruptcy of implanted material
- Bone graft harvesting site pain