Minimally invasive surgical technique that allows the exploration and treatment of previously found and diagnosed lesions inside the joints, through 2 or 3 small incisions of 1 to 1.5 cm, using a camera and specific instruments.
This method of treatment allows for less aggressiveness to obtain a postoperative period with less pain, fewer risks and complications, thus with an easier and shorter rehabilitation and a shorter hospitalization period.
This surgery is usually performed with locoregional anesthesia, depending on the patient’s wishes and the evaluation in Anesthesiology consultation.
- Diagnosis : Currently rarely performed solely for this purpose, except in cases of inconclusive diagnosis by the clinic and complementary examinations before the persistence of complaints. In this context, surgical treatment will be performed at the same operative time, due to the pathology detected intraoperatively.
- Knee Surgery :
The menisci are structures that are interposed between the femur and tibia and function as “shock absorbers and load distributors”. In its absence, joint cartilage wear with evolution to arthrosis occurs in the long term.
They are structures with vascular and nerve endings in their periphery, which cause pain when tearing and are “pinched” inside the joint, in the rotation and squat movements. The greater the mobility or instability of the torn fragments, the more frequent and intense the pain.
The most common knee injuries are meniscal tears, and meniscectomies / partial resections or meniscal sutures / repairs may be performed.
Meniscal transplantation is the placement of a cadaver meniscus to reconstruct an absent or insufficient meniscus after a total meniscectomy. It has a restricted indication in the age group below 50 years and due to the presence of painful complaints and evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging (degenerative process before arthrosis).
Cartilage is a tissue that allows the movement of joints without friction. Its wear, fracture or structural alteration (chondromalacia) causes pain and joint effusion. Arthroscopy can treat these lesions, but this tissue does not heal like cartilage. Instead, the body produces fibrocartilage, which fills the injury zone.
In cartilage lesions, unstable fragments regularization techniques, regeneration stimulation techniques from mesenchymal cells (microfractures) and mosaicplasty (cartilage transplantation) are performed. This last technique often requires open surgery (with wide incision) to obtain a good clinical result.
Arthroscopy can also perform synovectomies (excision of the inner lining membrane in cases of chronic inflammation), external allectomy (section of the outer wing of the kneecap in cases of cartilage wear, misalignment of the kneecap), removal of free bodies and knee artrolysis (release of intrarticular adhesions to gain joint mobility in cases of stiffness).
Ankle / Tibio-Tarsal Surgery:
In this joint this technique also allows to perform synovectomies, treatment of cartilage lesions, removal of intrarticular free bodies, arthrodesis (joint fixation complemented with screws), artrolise (release of adhesions and intrarticular fibrosis for decreased joint amplitude) and osteophyte excision. / “Parrot’s beaks” (in cases of bone conflict).