In some cases, after surgery in which all or a significant part of the meniscus is removed, the pressure exerted on the knee cartilage increases and may lead to pain and limitation of joint function. Postmeniscectomy syndrome, as it is called, represents a state of joint decompensation prior to arthrosis due to lack of meniscal tissue.
Meniscal transplantation is a technique of knee reconstructive surgery, indicated in these cases of postmeniscectomy syndrome, in which a “new” meniscus is placed from a human tissue bank (as is the case with other organ transplants). ). The main purpose of this surgery is to treat pain and improve the function of the affected knee in the activities of your daily life. Sport should be seen as a secondary objective in this context.
The ideal candidate is the one who has been removed from a meniscus, has pain and functional limitation in the compartment without meniscus, is under 50 years old, has no injury or limited cartilage injury, has no deviations from the mechanical axis and has a stable knee. However, knees with axis deviations and / or instabilities that can be surgically corrected may also undergo meniscal transplantation. Individuals with inflammatory joint disease, active infections, obese, impaired immunity, children or established knee arthrosis are not candidates for this procedure.
The technique of meniscal transplantation is performed by arthroscopy, using a camera and specific instruments. In addition to the 2 or 3 small incisions of arthroscopy, other accessory incisions may be necessary for correct fixation of the meniscus.
The main cause of meniscal transplant failure is its rupture, just like an original meniscus.
Possible complications include infection, neurovascular injury, joint stiffness, and the progression of arthrosis. The risk of transmission of infectious diseases is very low, given the process of preparation of meniscal tissue, and is estimated to occur at 0.000001% (1 case in 1 million operated patients).